Isfahan also Romanized as Esfahān; historically also rendered in English asIspahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, The cities of Zarrinshahr, Fooladshahr and Najafabad, Shahinshahr, Mobarakeh, Falavarjan and Charmahin all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan .
Isfahan is located on the main north–south and east–west routes crossing Iran, and was once one of the largest cities in the world. Particularly in the 16th century under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today, the city retains much of its past glory. It is famous for its Persian–Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets. This led to the Persian proverb "Esfahān nesf-e- jahān ast" (Isfahan is half of the world). The Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan is one of the largest city squares in the world and an outstanding example of Iranian and Islamic architecture. It has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The city also has a wide variety of historic monuments and is known for the paintings, history and architecture.
The history of Isfahan can be traced back to the Paleolithic period. In recent discoveries, archaeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and ages Today Isfahan, the third largest city in Iran, produces fine carpets, textiles, steel, and handicrafts. Isfahan also has nuclear experimental reactors as well as facilities for producing nuclear fuel (UCF). Isfahan has one of the largest steel-producing facilities in the entire region, as well as facilities for producing special alloys.
The city has an international airport and is in the final stages of constructing its first Metro line.
The city is located in the lush plain of the Zayanderud River, at the foothills of the Zagros mountain range. Isfahan is an important historical center for different groups of tourists in the domestic and international world. The central historical area in Isfahan is called Seeosepol (the name of a famous bridge). Isfahan is served by the Isfahan International Airport which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights.